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Japan: we never do equipment maintenance!

Pang went to Japan to show off his skills


Xiao pang is the grass-roots team leader of a Toyota holding group in the production of automobile castings. In 2003, the team just completed the joint venture and specially selected 10 first-line team leaders to study in Toyota's knowing factory in Japan for two months. Luckily, xiao pang was selected to study in Japan.


Two months later, xiao pang and others returned from school. On Friday, all the members of the team specially for xiao pang to meet the wind, by the way, ask xiao pang to talk about the harvest of Japanese knowledge, at the dinner table, you say my words, have asked xiao pang in Japanese factory what true story?


Hearing this, xiao pang calmed down from the excitement of describing what he had seen and heard. "we are all old friends, and some words can only be said here. To be honest, I didn't think I learned anything from it.


Xiao pang's face was filled with the satisfaction that could not be concealed. However, all the people listened to him in a confused way: "they still have problems that need to be solved by you?"


Small pang said: "is ah, I did not think of, one day on the work, beside a special milling machine knife dish bad, they do not know how to deal with, I go up three five in addition to two repaired, that night, their manufacture section chief also specially asked us to eat, thank you, touched several glasses of wine.


Everyone more worship xiao pang: "impossible, their equipment you can repair?" ", small pang say: "said you perhaps don't believe, that equipment our factory also have, every day bad, I already know thoroughly!"




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Behind the skill lies the problem



Xiao pang's performance in Japan made great achievements for Chinese workers. The problems that Japanese workers could not solve at that time were quickly solved by the people sent by China to study. It can be said that xiao pang's personal equipment maintenance skills are indeed superb.


But what lies behind little pang's skill?


It is our production site for the serious negligence of equipment management! Why do you say that? Because the management is not in place, the equipment will often appear "symptoms", created the small pang this maintenance master.


Japanese workers maintain equipment from time to time; Chinese workers repair equipment every day, every word is wrong, but the efficiency is several times different. As Chinese companies have become more powerful, many have begun to buy the most advanced equipment for production. Although the level of equipment is not significantly worse than that of western countries, and the workers' skills are even better than that of western countries, the efficiency is very different.


3



What's wrong with us?



Poor in the understanding of modern management, poor in the implementation of the management system, poor in the use of backward concepts to the most advanced equipment.


Modern team production, more and more inseparable from a variety of processing, auxiliary equipment, mainly manual operations, the use of simple tools for processing time has long died. Modern group, without stable operation of equipment, there will be no group normal survival basis.


On the contrary, the equipment is frequently in violation of our wishes, with frequent failure, energy interruption, oil leakage, defective spare parts, loss of function and other problems caused by these equipment, which constantly interfere with the normal work, and the production site organization activities are always in a state of interruption. Over time, the team leader from the organization of production "fighting elite", into the organization of emergency repair, report "fire elite".


Similarly, in the face of frequent equipment failure, the equipment management department and professional maintenance personnel are too tired to cope with, work east to west kill, everywhere fire fighting, but still can not get rid of the misfortune of being complained by the first line personnel, ultimately, leading to the first line monitor and equipment maintenance personnel at the same time, exhausted, helpless.





4



How to achieve zero fault?

One might ask, wouldn't the device be permanently usable from a zero failure point of view, and here we have to distinguish between two different concepts which are natural aging and forced deterioration.


Natural aging means that although the use method is correct, with the passage of time, the equipment has undergone physical and chemical changes, and the initial performance gradually declines.


Forced deterioration refers to the failure to operate in the proper way, which artificially promotes the deterioration. For example, there is no refueling where you should be refueling, or you are refueling too little or for too long. There is not due to the equipment cleaning and so on, that is, not to do what should be done, will contribute to the deterioration of equipment.


In this way, the service life of the equipment is lower than its due life and much shorter than the life of natural aging. Therefore, the significance of zero fault point of view is to guide us to correctly understand the fault and do what should be done to avoid forced deterioration and delay natural aging.


So far, many failures have been the real cause of failure. There are usually small, hidden defects before a failure occurs. The failure can be eliminated if the potential defect, which is not noticeable and ultimately leads to the failure, is addressed before the failure occurs, and improvements are made in time. Thus, the explicit treatment of potential defects is the "no fault" principle.


1. In order to advance this work, we derive five measures to achieve zero failure according to the possible causes of failure:


1) basic conditions are met


The so-called basic conditions, is to clean, refueling, fastening and so on. Failure is caused by deterioration of the equipment, but most of the deterioration is caused by the absence of basic conditions 3.


2) strictly observe the operating conditions


The operating conditions of the machine and equipment are determined at the time of design. Strictly in accordance with the operating conditions, the equipment will rarely fail. Such as voltage, speed, temperature and installation conditions, are determined according to the characteristics of the equipment.


3) restore the equipment to normal


Even if a equipment has the basic conditions, to ensure the use of conditions, because it is difficult to achieve perfect, so the equipment will still occur deterioration, failure. So make the implicit deterioration explicit and bring it back to normal. This means that we should always carry out proper inspection and preventive repair of the equipment.


4) improve the design deficiencies


Some faults cannot be eliminated even after the above three countermeasures are adopted. They are often caused by the deficiencies or errors in the design, manufacturing and installation of equipment. Such faults should be carefully analyzed and these defects should be improved.


5) improve people's quality


All countermeasures have to be implemented by people, in the process of achieving zero fault man is the most fundamental. First of all, everyone should have a serious attitude and a dedicated spirit, second, have a correct understanding of the fault, and finally to improve the professional skills of the operation and maintenance personnel.


In general, we should do the following aspects of work in daily work: to prevent deterioration of activities: correct operation, preparation, adjustment, cleaning, refueling, fastening, etc.; To determine the deterioration of the activities: check the operating conditions, the daily and regular inspection of equipment to find potential faults early; Rehabilitation activities: remove hazards and deterioration in time to restore equipment to normal condition.


It's a step by step approach to self-maintenance and everybody wants the equipment to be efficient. As far as equipment is concerned, its efficiency involves two aspects of people, one is production and use personnel, the other is maintenance personnel. If people on both sides regard themselves as isolated parties, we are the producers who only use the equipment, you are the maintainers, and you are responsible for the quality of the equipment, of course, no good results will be produced. It should be noted that production, use and maintenance are two aspects of a whole, just like the two wheels of a bicycle, only when the two are fully equipped and cooperate with each other, can the efficiency of the equipment be given full play. The production and use department is not just concerned with production and use, it should also undertake the basic work of equipment maintenance, namely "activities to prevent deterioration". Only the production and use of the department to do a good job "to prevent deterioration of activities", maintenance department can play out its commitment to the real power of full-time maintenance means, in order to make equipment really effective maintenance.


2. In order to actually do this job well, we need to have four abilities:


We call the maintenance activities carried out by production and use departments centering on "preventing equipment deterioration" "self-maintenance activities attended by all staff", which is usually called self-maintenance. During self-maintenance activities. In order to give full play to the ability of the equipment, it is necessary to implement "own equipment by their own management", do a person who can control the equipment. Therefore, in addition to the ability to manufacture products, the operator must have the following four abilities:


1) ability to detect anomalies


The "abnormal discovery ability" that can find the abnormality of equipment is not only to find the abnormality when the fault has occurred or the defect has occurred, but when the fault seems to occur and the defect appears to occur, the abnormality such as the cause of these faults can be clearly seen. Only in this way, can it be called as the real "abnormal discovery ability".


2) ability to handle exceptions correctly and quickly


For the abnormal phenomena found, the original function of the equipment can only be brought into play if it is restored to the original correct state. Moreover, it should be able to decide whether to report to the superior and maintenance department according to the degree of the abnormal phenomena and how to deal with it.


3) ability to set conditions


The ability to detect anomalies often depends on a person's level and experience, which can affect the detection of anomalies. In order to prevent this phenomenon, a certain amount should be determined to determine whether the equipment is normal or not. The benchmark should be quantified. Taking temperature as an example, the quantification should be defined as "below XX degrees", but not vaguely described as "no abnormal heating". It should be stressed here that rather than delaying implementation by focusing on the accuracy of the benchmark, it is more practical to set a temporary benchmark and then revise it several times to set a more appropriate benchmark.


4) maintain management ability


It is always better to repair the equipment after failure than to prevent it first. Therefore, it is necessary to follow the established standards, such as "cleaning, refueling standard" and "independent inspection standard". To form the system of self-maintenance, on the one hand, we should pay attention to the training of talents, on the other hand, according to their actual ability to work effectively improve. When carrying out self-care, the goal and content are organized into 7 steps, which is called "progressive self-care". Ideally, do each step thoroughly until you reach a certain point before moving on to the next step.


(1) initial cleaning


Initial cleaning is to thoroughly clean dust, garbage, etc. with the equipment as the center. We need to check the cleaning changes to find problems, find potential defects in the equipment, and deal with them in time. At the same time, cleaning can help operators to take good care of the equipment.


(2) occurrence source and countermeasures of difficult positions


In order to maintain and improve the results of the first stage of early cleaning, it is necessary to put an end to dust, pollution and other sources (source), for this can take measures to eliminate or cover, seal. For the parts that are difficult to maintain, such as refueling, cleaning and decontamination, effective measures should be taken to improve the maintainability of the equipment.


(3) compile cleaning and refueling benchmarks


According to the experience gained in the first and second steps, prepare a temporary benchmark to maintain the equipment in your charge, such as cleaning, refueling, fastening and other basic conditions.


(4) comprehensive inspection


In order to give full play to the inherent functions of the equipment, it is necessary to learn the structure, function and judgment criteria of the equipment, check the appearance of the main parts of the equipment, find out the defects of the equipment and make it recover, and master the necessary inspection skills. Furthermore, previously prepared benchmarks could be considered for continuous improvement to facilitate inspection.


(5) independent inspection


On the basis of the cleaning benchmark, refueling benchmark and inspection benchmark written in the third step, add what you have learned in the fourth step and follow it completely. This is the autonomous inspection benchmark. In the process of learning and executing, I should also keep learning and getting familiar with the operation and action of equipment, the correlation between quality and equipment, etc., and have the ability to operate equipment correctly and detect abnormal conditions at an early stage.


(6) sorting out and reorganizing


Expand the scope of activities from the existing equipment-centered activities to peripheral equipment and the whole workshop, and develop to achieve and maintain the proper image of the whole workshop on the basis of mastering the above five steps.


The finishing that this step says is to point out the working fixture, semi-finished product, defective product in the workshop, and work out the management benchmark, should completely reduce the management of things, things and so on, simplify as much as possible.


The so-called should be thorough rectification is to comply with (maintain) set the benchmark and gradually improve, so that operators easy to comply. Workshop implementation of visual management and management standardization.


(7) the thorough transformation of independent management


Through the previous 6-step activities, a lot of achievements have been achieved and the staff has been greatly exercised. Therefore, the seventh step is to establish the awareness of continuous improvement, carry out the PDCA cycle continuously, and work out new group activity goals suitable for them in combination with the company's policies and goals, so as to achieve the thorough self-management.








Finally share Mr Yu shuhong's maintenance of the five steps


Machines and equipment are designed and manufactured by people, and the cause of the failure must be found. Any fault can be solved. When the fault and hidden danger appear, how to quickly find the root cause of the fault is generally divided into the following five steps:


1, ask.


When the equipment failure, the first thing to do is to familiar with the equipment operators ask more, understand the situation. Such as maintenance of computer failure, need to know whether the computer in the use of what software installed, downloaded what procedures; When the computer appears the condition peripheral equipment has any abnormal phenomenon; When the computer was purchased and where it was often used; When a fault occurs, what is the fault phenomenon? Such as the above questions, the maintenance staff to ask more, perhaps inadvertently can find out the problem, which can save a lot of time, the remedy.


2, check.


Check the machine for any obvious anomalies. Use the eyes to see, touch, nose and smell belong to the scope of seeing, as if Chinese medicine, smell, ask and cut, feel the pulse to see a doctor, if a glance to see the abnormal equipment, you can quickly find the cause of the fault. In the process of maintenance, many faults caused by components are judged by smell.


3, want to.


Thinking is the process of analyzing and judging, following the ten principles of maintenance, applying the maintenance method flexibly, and judging the fault well according to the maintenance experience.


4, do it.


To do is to start to eliminate the fault, before the adjustment or replacement of spare parts to mark and mark, adjustment or replacement should be invalid immediately after recovery, so as to avoid the expansion and complication of the fault. In the process of elimination, a comprehensive use of various methods, do know.


5, and think.


After troubleshooting, the whole process to reflect, that is, the content of the ten questions of fault management.


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